Journalismus im Internet muss neue Spielregeln verstehen

von Steffen am 18. Januar 2010 · 90 Kommentare

Das Internet ist ein menschlicher Kulturraum. Es verändert Kommunikation und Aufmerksamkeit und somit zweifellos unsere Gesellschaft. Ein zukunftsfähiger (Fach-)Journalismus ist nur möglich, wenn er diese Veränderung erkennt und darauf reagiert.

Internet als soziales System
Netzmensch Sascha Lobo sagte im SPIEGEL: „Ich halte die Auswirkungen auf die Gesellschaft und besonders auf die kommenden Generationen für so revolutionär, als wären Buchdruck, Telefon und Fernseher gleichzeitig erfunden worden.“

Ich halte die Auswirkung auf die Gesellschaft sogar für so bedeutend, dass ich behaupte: Das Internet wurde, gerade durch die soziale Software des Web 2.0, ein soziales System.

In der Soziologie scheint mir diese Ansicht noch umstritten. Das Netz umfassend aus systemtheoretischer Sicht zu beschreiben ist eine Aufgabe, die es noch zu erfüllen gilt und die aufgrund der Schnelllebigkeit des Mediums schwierig sein dürfte.

Dem Soziologen Peter Fuchs gelingt dies indem er den Prozess der Selbsterschaffung und -erhaltung eines Systems, also einen Schlüsselbegriff der Systemtheorie (zumindest der Luhmann‘schen) auf das Netz überträgt: „Wir haben es mit einem sozialen System zu tun, das mit eigenen Operationen (Kommunikationen) weitere Operationen produziert, die weitere Operationen   produzieren, und dies in autopoetischer Geschlossenheit [...]“.

Digital Divide
Das Internet als soziales System zu begreifen, heißt auch seine Bedeutung für die gesamte Gesellschaft zu betrachten. Häufig kommt der Begriff einer digitalen Spaltung der Gesellschaft ins Spiel. In meinen Augen schafft diese Theorie Angst vor der neuen Technik Internet.

„Das Internet ist eine Einladung zur Kommunikation in einer neuen Dimension“, sagt der Psychologe Peter Kruse und meint: „Nicht teilzunehmen, ist daher nur noch ideologisch und kaum mehr praktisch begründbar.“ Die digitale Spaltung soll mit diesen Aussagen relativiert und damit ihrer in Relevanz für die Diskussion gemindert werden. Nachzulesen in einem wirklich großartigen Interview in der Süddeutschen Zeitung.

Neue Spielregeln – 
Relevanz vs. Interessanz
Ein neues System mit neuen Möglichkeiten und Herausforderungen benötigt neue Spielregeln – diese zu verstehen und zu nutzen ist die zentrale Aufgabe des Journalismus der Zukunft.

Waren Informationen vor einigen Jahren noch Ware und oftmals Monopolgut von Print- und Hörfunkmedien, ist ihr Wert im Internet dramatisch gesunken. Nie zuvor war es einfacher und kostengünstiger möglich, so schnell, Zugang zu so vielen Informationen zu bekommen. Und das für wortwörtlich jeden.

Aufgabe klassischer Medien war es, im Informationsdschungel, zu dem sie oftmals exklusiven Zugang hatten, relevante Ereignisse zu finden und diese als Nachrichten zu veröffentlichen. Die Journalisten statuierten in ihrer Rolle als „Gatekeeper“ ein Relevanzdiktat, das im Internet nicht mehr funktionieren kann.

Denn im Internet bekommt Relevanz einen großen Konkurrenten: Die Interessantheit oder Interessanz wie es  Sascha Lobo bezeichnet. Er meint, im schon genannten SPIEGEL-Artikel: „Im virtuellen Raum des Netzes herrschen andere Regeln als in der traditionellen Medienlandschaft. Eben noch wählte eine Redaktion aus, was ihr wichtig erschien; jetzt wird im Internet hochgespült, was ausreichend viele Menschen für interessant halten.“

Ich glaube: Das Netz ist eine große Chance, gerade für den Fachjournalismus!


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